Irving Ashby (1920–1987) jazz guitarist
Ruth Batson (1921–2003), civil rights and education activist
Susan Batson, actress, daughter of Ruth Batson
Ricky Bell, Member of R&B group New Edition formed in Boston in 1978
Michael Bivins, Member of R&B group New Edition formed in Boston in 1978
Nathaniel Jeremiah Bradlee (1829–1888), architect
Edward Brooke, U.S. senator, first African American elected to Senate in the 20th century
Bobby Brown, Member of R&B group New Edition formed in Boston in 1978
Alan Dawson (1929–1996), famous jazz drummer and percussion teacher, grew up in Roxbury
Henry Dearborn (1751–1829), physician, general, U.S. representative, U.S. Secretary of War
Henry Alexander Scammell Dearborn (1783–1851), U.S. representative, mayor of Roxbury, son of Henry Dearborn.
Ronnie DeVoe, Member of R&B group New Edition formed in Boston in 1978
Joseph Dudley (1647–1720), colonial governor of Massachusetts, son of Thomas Dudley
Thomas Dudley (1576–1653), colonial governor of Massachusetts
Ed O.G., hip hop artist, founder of Da Bulldogs, named an album after Roxbury.
John Eliot (1604–1690), minister, Bible translator, founder of Roxbury Latin School
Gustavus Esselen (1888–1952), chemist, born in Roxbury
William Eustis (1753–1825), governor of Massachusetts, owner of Shirley-Eustis House in Roxbury
Louis Farrakhan, Nation of Islam leader, activist, raised in Roxbury
Mark Frechette (1947–1975), film actor, Zabriskie Point
The G-Clefs, Top 40 Soul Group
William Lloyd Garrison (1805–1879), journalist, abolitionist, lived in Roxbury last 15 years of his life
Charles Dana Gibson (1867–1944), illustrator
Samuel Griswold Goodrich (1793–1860), author, state legislator
Guru (1961–2010), rapper, member/founder of Gang Starr
Edward Everett Hale (1822–1909), author, reformer, Unitarian clergyman
Roy Haynes (born 1925), jazz drummer and bandleader
Elma Lewis (1921–2004), arts educator, founder of the National Center of Afro-American Artists (NCAAA)
Nelson Merced, state legislator, Latino activist
Shabazz Napier, NBA player
Patrice O'Neal (1969–2011), comedian, actor.
Louis Prang (1824–1909), printer, lithographer and publisher
William Pynchon (1590–1662), founder of Roxbury and Springfield, Massachusetts
Sylvester H. Roper (1823–1896), inventor
Nathaniel Ruggles (1761–1819), U.S. representative.
Byron Rushing, state legislator, activist
Kenneth Kamal Scott, singer, dancer, actor, nephew of Irving Ashby.
Ebenezer Seaver (1763–1844), U.S. representative.
William Shirley (1694–1771), colonial governor of Massachusetts, built Shirley-Eustis House in Roxbury
Aafia Siddiqui, neuroscientist, , Roxbury resident 1995-2001
Ebenezer Stevens (1751–1823), American Revolution activist, officer
Sonny Stitt (1924–1982), jazz saxophonist
John L. Sullivan (1858–1918), boxing heavyweight champion, born in Roxbury
Donna Summer (1948–2012), R&B Star, "Queen of Disco"
Increase Sumner (1746–1799), governor of Massachusetts
Ralph Tresvant, Member of R&B group New Edition formed in Boston in 1978
Darius Walker, CNN Vice President and New York bureau chief, lived in Roxbury for several years as a youth
Jimmy Walker (1944–2007), professional basketball guard
Joseph Warren (1741–1775), physician, Revolutionary major general
Tony Williams (1945–1997), famous jazz drummer, grew up in Roxbury
Malcolm X (1925–1965), Nation of Islam minister and activist, founder of the Organization of Afro-American Unity, spent formative years in Roxbury.